Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Policies)

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BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Policies)
6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2020
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Use of Estimates
Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements under GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period.  

The most significant estimates relate to proved crude oil and natural gas reserves, estimates relating to certain crude oil and natural gas revenues and expenses, fair value of derivative instruments, fair value of contingent consideration, acquisition date fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed, impairment of oil and natural gas properties, asset retirement obligations and deferred income taxes.  Actual results may differ from those estimates.
Adopted and Recentily Issued Accounting Pronouncements
Adopted and Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326) - Measurement of credit losses on financial instruments, which requires a company immediately recognize management’s current estimated credit losses (“CECL”) for all financial instruments that are not accounted for at fair value through net income. Previously, credit losses on financial assets were only required to be
recognized when they were incurred. The Company adopted ASU 2016-13 on January 1, 2020. The guidance did not have a significant impact on the condensed financial statements or notes accompanying the condensed financial statements.

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, Fair value measurement (Topic 820) - Disclosure framework - Changes to the disclosure requirements for fair value measurement, which modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements in Topic 820. The Company adopted ASU 2018-13 on January 1, 2020. The guidance did not have a significant impact on the condensed financial statements or notes accompanying the condensed financial statements.

In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740) - Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, which simplifies the accounting for income taxes by removing certain exceptions to the general principles and also simplification of areas such as separate entity financial statements and interim recognition of enactment of tax laws or rate changes. ASU 2019-12 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, including interim reporting periods within those years. The Company is currently evaluating the effect of ASU 2019-12, but does not expect the adoption of this guidance to have a material impact on its financial position, cash flows or result of operations.

In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform, which provides temporary optional guidance to companies impacted by the transition away from the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR). The amendment provides certain expedients and exceptions to applying GAAP in order to lessen the potential accounting burden when contracts, hedging
relationships, and other transactions that reference LIBOR as a benchmark rate are modified. This amendment is effective upon issuance and expires on December 31, 2022. The Company is currently assessing the impact of the LIBOR transition and this ASU on the Company’s condensed financial statements.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue Recognition

The Company’s revenues are primarily derived from its interests in the sale of oil and natural gas production. The Company recognizes revenue from its interests in the sales of oil and natural gas in the period that its performance obligations are satisfied. Performance obligations are satisfied when the customer obtains control of product, when the Company has no further obligations to perform related to the sale, when the transaction price has been determined and when collectability is probable.

A wellhead imbalance liability equal to the Company’s share is recorded to the extent that the Company’s well operators have sold volumes in excess of its share of remaining reserves in an underlying property. However, for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, the Company’s natural gas production was in balance, meaning its cumulative portion of natural gas production taken and sold from wells in which it has an interest equaled its entitled interest in natural gas production from those wells.
Concentrations of Market, Credit and Other Risks
Concentrations of Market, Credit and Other Risks

The future results of the Company’s crude oil and natural gas operations will be affected by the market prices of crude oil and natural gas.  The availability of a ready market for crude oil and natural gas products in the future will depend on numerous factors beyond the control of the Company, including weather, imports, marketing of competitive fuels, proximity and capacity of crude oil and natural gas pipelines and other transportation facilities, any oversupply or undersupply of crude oil, natural gas and liquid products, economic disruptions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, the regulatory environment, the economic environment, and other regional and political events, none of which can be predicted with certainty.

The Company operates in the exploration, development and production sector of the crude oil and natural gas industry.  The Company’s receivables include amounts due, indirectly via the third-party operators of the wells, from purchasers of its crude oil and natural gas production.  While certain of these customers, as well as third-party operators of the wells, are affected by periodic downturns in the economy in general or in their specific segment of the crude oil or natural gas industry, the Company believes that its level of credit-related losses due to such economic fluctuations have been immaterial.

As a non-operator, 100% of the Company’s wells are operated by third-party operating partners. As a result, the Company is highly dependent on the success of these third-party operators. If they are not successful in the development, exploitation,
production and exploration activities relating to the Company’s leasehold interests, or are unable or unwilling to perform, the Company’s financial condition and results of operation could be adversely affected. These risks are heightened in the current low commodity price environment, which may present significant challenges to these third-party operators. The Company’s third-party operators will make decisions in connection with their operations that may not be in the Company’s best interests, and the Company may have little or no ability to exercise influence over the operational decisions of its third-party operators.
The Company faces concentration risk due to the fact that all of its oil and natural gas properties are located in the Williston Basin, primarily in North Dakota and Montana. As a result, the Company is disproportionately exposed to risks affecting its single geographic area of operations.

The Company manages and controls market and counterparty credit risk. In the normal course of business, collateral is not required for financial instruments with credit risk. Financial instruments which potentially subject the Company to credit risk consist principally of temporary cash balances and derivative financial instruments. The Company maintains cash and cash equivalents in bank deposit accounts which, at times, may exceed the federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any significant losses from such investments. The Company attempts to limit the amount of credit exposure to any one financial institution or company. The Company believes the credit quality of its counterparties is generally high. In the normal course of business, letters of credit or parent guarantees may be required for counterparties which management perceives to have a higher credit risk.
Net Income (Loss) Per Common Share Net Income (Loss) Per Common ShareBasic earnings per share (“EPS”) are computed by dividing net income (loss) available to common stockholders (the numerator) by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period (the denominator). Diluted EPS is computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted average number of common shares and potential common shares outstanding (if dilutive) during each period. Potential common shares include shares issuable upon exercise of stock options and vesting of restricted stock awards, and shares issuable upon conversion of the Series A Preferred Stock (see Note 5). The number of potential common shares outstanding are calculated using the treasury stock or if-converted method.
Fair Value
Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date.  Valuation techniques used to measure fair value must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs.  The Company uses a fair value hierarchy based on three levels of inputs, of which the first two are considered observable and the last unobservable, that may be used to measure fair value which are the following:

Level 1 - Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.

Level 2 - Inputs other than Level 1 that are observable, either directly or indirectly, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities; quoted prices in markets that are not active; or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.

Level 3 - Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities.

Financial Assets and Liabilities
As required, financial assets and liabilities are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The Company’s assessment of the significance of a particular input requires judgment and may affect the valuation of fair value assets and liabilities and their placement within the fair value hierarchy levels. 
Commodity Derivatives. The Level 2 instruments presented in the tables above consist of commodity derivative instruments (see Note 11).  The fair value of the Company’s commodity derivative instruments is determined based upon future prices, volatility and time to maturity, among other things. Counterparty statements are utilized to determine the value of the commodity derivative instruments and are reviewed and corroborated using various methodologies and significant observable inputs.  The Company’s and the counterparties’ nonperformance risk is evaluated.  The fair value of commodity derivative contracts is reflected on the condensed balance sheet.  The current derivative asset and liability amounts represent the fair values expected to be settled in the subsequent twelve months.

Interest Rate Derivatives. The Level 2 instruments presented in the tables above consist of interest rate derivative instruments (see Note 11).  The fair value of the Company’s interest rate derivative instruments is determined based upon contracted notional amounts, active market-quoted LIBOR yield curves, and time to maturity, among other things. Counterparty statements are utilized to determine the value of the interest rate derivative instruments and are reviewed and corroborated using various methodologies and significant observable inputs.  The Company’s and the counterparties’ nonperformance risk is evaluated.  The fair value of interest rate derivative contracts is reflected on the condensed balance sheet.  The current derivative asset and liability amounts represent the fair values expected to be settled in the subsequent twelve months.
Derivative Instruments and Price Risk Management
The Company utilizes commodity price swaps, basis swaps, swaptions and collars (purchased put options and written call options) to (i) reduce the effects of volatility in price changes on the crude oil and natural gas commodities it produces and sells, (ii) reduce commodity price risk and (iii) provide a base level of cash flow in order to assure it can execute at least a portion of its capital spending. In addition, in the first quarter of 2020, the Company began to utilize interest rate swaps to mitigate exposure to changes in interest rates on the Company’s variable-rate indebtedness.

All derivative instruments are recorded on the Company’s balance sheet as either assets or liabilities measured at their fair value (see Note 10).  The Company has not designated any derivative instruments as hedges for accounting purposes and does not enter into such instruments for speculative trading purposes.  If a derivative does not qualify as a hedge or is not designated as a hedge, the changes in the fair value are recognized in the Company’s condensed statements of operations as a gain or loss on
derivative instruments.  Mark-to-market gains and losses represent changes in fair values of derivatives that have not been settled.  The Company’s cash flow is only impacted when the actual settlements under the derivative contracts result in making or receiving a payment to or from the counterparty.  These cash settlements represent the cumulative gains and losses on the Company’s derivative instruments for the periods presented and do not include a recovery of costs that were paid to acquire or modify the derivative instruments that were settled.

The Company has master netting agreements on individual derivative instruments with certain counterparties and therefore the current asset and liability are netted on the balance sheet and the non-current asset and liability are netted on the balance sheet for contracts with these counterparties.