|3 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2018
|Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]|
The Company utilizes the asset and liability approach to measuring deferred tax assets and liabilities based on temporary differences existing at each balance sheet date using currently enacted tax rates. A valuation allowance for the Company’s deferred tax assets is established if, in management’s opinion, it is more likely than not that a valuation allowance is needed, looking at both positive and negative factors. At March 31, 2018, a valuation allowance of $226.2 million had been provided for our net deferred tax assets based on the uncertainty regarding whether these assets may be realized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted for the effects of changes in tax laws and rates on the date of enactment.
The income tax provision (benefit) for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017 consists of the following:
On December 22, 2017, the United States enacted the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“the Act”) which made significant changes that affect the Company, resulting in significant modifications to existing law. The Company’s financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2017 and for the quarter ended March 31, 2018 reflect certain effects of the Act which includes a reduction in the corporate tax rate from 35% to 21% effective January 1, 2018, as well as other changes.
The Act also repeals the corporate alternative minimum tax for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017 and provides that prior alternative minimum tax credits will be refundable. The Company has credits that are expected to be refunded between 2018 and 2021 as a result of the Act and monetization opportunities under current tax laws.
The Act is a comprehensive tax reform bill containing a number of other provisions that either currently or in the future could impact the Company. The Company has completed the analysis of the Act and does not expect a material change due to the transition impacts. Any changes that do arise due to changes in interpretations of the Act, legislative action to address questions that arise because of the Act, changes in accounting standards for income taxes or related interpretations in response to the Act, or any updates or changes to estimates the Company has utilized to calculate the transition impacts will be disclosed in future periods as they arise. The effect of certain limitations effective for the tax year 2018 and forward, specifically related to the deductibility of executive compensation and interest expense, have been evaluated.
Income tax provision (benefit) during interim periods is based on applying an estimated annual effective income tax rate to year-to-date income (loss), plus any unusual or infrequently occurring items that are recorded in the interim period. The provision for the three-month periods ended March 31, 2018, presented above, differ from the amount that would be provided by applying the statutory U.S. federal income tax rate of 21% to income before income taxes. The lower effective tax rate in 2018 and 2017 relates to the valuation allowance placed on the net deferred tax assets, in addition to state income taxes and estimated permanent differences.
Tax benefits are recognized only for tax positions that are more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by tax authorities. The amount recognized is measured as the largest amount of benefit that is greater than 50 percent likely to be realized upon ultimate settlement. Unrecognized tax benefits are tax benefits claimed in the Company’s tax returns that do not meet these recognition and measurement standards. The Company has no liabilities for unrecognized tax benefits.
The Company’s policy is to recognize potential interest and penalties accrued related to unrecognized tax benefits within income tax expense. For the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company did not recognize any interest or penalties in its condensed statements of operations, nor did it have any interest or penalties accrued in its condensed balance sheet at March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 relating to unrecognized benefits.
The tax years 2017, 2016 and 2015 remain open to examination for federal income tax purposes and tax years 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011 and 2010 by the other major taxing jurisdictions to which the Company is subject.
The entire disclosure for income taxes. Disclosures may include net deferred tax liability or asset recognized in an enterprise's statement of financial position, net change during the year in the total valuation allowance, approximate tax effect of each type of temporary difference and carryforward that gives rise to a significant portion of deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets, utilization of a tax carryback, and tax uncertainties information.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef